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bible dictionary online
Biographies of Bible Characters, People and characters in the Bible
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B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | Z | Introduction

Aa | Ab | Ac | Ad | Ae | Ag | Ah | Ai | Ak | Al | Am | An | Ap | Aq | Ar | As | At | Au | Az

Names beginning with A

This guide is intended for visitors who want to learn more about the Bible. Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this guide, please e-mail me by clicking on this link.


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Aaron was the son of Amram and Jochebed, the brother of Moses and Miriam, and the first priest of Israel. God appointed Aaron to be Moses' spokesman in his audiences with the unnamed Pharaoh of Exodus. As a symbol of his office, Aaron received a magical rod. He turned the rod into a snake - the first in a series of signs, by which he and Moses hoped to persuade Pharaoh to let the Israelites leave Egypt. Aaron also used the rod to call down three of the plagues that followed this first sign (polluting the Nile, frogs and gnats). God also caused the rod to blossom and bear ripe almonds, as a sign that Aaron's descendants would inherit the priesthood.

God summoned Aaron to be present when Moses received the Ten Commandments. But Aaron did not stay on Sinai. Instead he agreed to oversee the casting of an idol (a golden calf) for the Israelites who had rebelled against the authority of the absent Moses.

Aaron was generally a supporter of Moses, but took him to task for his marrying a Cushite wife. For this God rebuked Aaron (and Miriam). His role as priest was critical when he made atonement for the Israelites and stayed the plague that had followed the rebellion of Dathan and Abiram. Exodus and Leviticus give a detailed account of the vestments and duties of Aaron and of his sons.

Aaron's elder sons, Nadab and Abihu, died early but the younger pair, Eleazar and Ithamar, succeeded him in the priesthood. When Aaron was a hundred and twenty three, God instructed him to go up onto Mt. Hor, where he died. Aaron figures prominently in Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy and Numbers, and is named in other books of both Old and New Testaments.

Exodus 4.14-16, 27-5.4, 20, 21; 6.20, 26, 27; 7.1-12.50; 15.20; 16.2- 34; 17.10, 12; 24.1, 9, 14; 28.1-43; 29.4-44; 30.7, 10, 19, 30; 32.2-35; 34.30, 31; 39.1, 41; 40.12; Leviticus 1.5-8; 2.3, 10; 3.5; 6.9-24; 7.10, 31-35; 8.1-9.24; 10.1-12; 11.1; 13.2; 14.33; 15.1; 16.1-33; 17.1; 21.17, 21, 24; 22.2, 4, 17; 24-3, 8, 9; Numbers 1.17; 3.1-10, 32-51; 4.1-49; 8.2-22; 9.6; 10.8; 12.1-12; 16.3-50; 17.3-10; 18.1, 20, 28; 19.1; 20.6-29; 26.59-64; 27.13; 33.38, 39; Deuteronomy 9.20; 10.6; 32.44; Joshua 24.5; 1 Samuel 12.6, 8; 1 Chronicles 6.3, 49, 50; 23.13; Psalms 99.6; 105.26; 106.16; 133.2; Micah 6.4; Acts 7.40; Hebrews 5.4;7.11

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Abagtha was one of seven eunuchs who served Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) as chamberlains. Esther 1.10.

Abdon (1) was son of Hillel the Pirathonite. Abdon judged Israel for forty years. He was famous for his large family - he had forty sons and thirty grandsons. Judges 12.13-15

Abdon (2) was the son of Micah. According to the Chronicler, he was one of those sent by Josiah to ask for advice from the prophetess Huldah, after the finding of the book of the law. He may be the same person as Achbor (in 2 Kings 23.12,14). 2 Chronicles 34.20, 22

Abednego is the Babylonian name of Azariah, a friend of Daniel, Hananiah and Mishael. Daniel 1.6-20; 2.17,18, 49; 3.12-30

Abel was the son of Adam and Eve. His elder brother, Cain, murdered Abel after God received Abel's offering (the first of his flock) favourably, while rejecting Cain's offering. Genesis 4.2-11

Abi was Zechariah's daughter, who married Ahaz, and became Hezekiah's mother. 2 Kings 18.2

Abialbon was an Arbathite, and member of David's bodyguard. 2 Samuel 23.31
Abiasaph was the third son of Korah. Exodus 6.24

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Abiathar was the son of Ahimelech and priest of Israel. During Saul's reign he was outlawed. David sheltered him, and, when he became king, made him priest. Abiathar helped David at the time of Absalom's rebellion. Later he supported Adonijah in his abortive bid for power. He fell from favour and Solomon banished him to his family home in Anathoth. Some scholars think that Abiathar may have written part of what are now the books of Samuel. 1 Samuel 22.21; 23.6, 9; 30.7, 8; 2 Samuel 15.24-29; 17.15; 19.11; 20.25; 1 Kings 1.7, 19, 25; 2.26, 27, 35; 4.4; 1 Chronicles 27.34

Abida was son of Midian, and the grandson of Abraham and Keturah, his second wife. Genesis 25.4

Abidan was head of the tribe of Benjamin when Moses carried out the census in the wilderness of Sinai. Numbers 1.11; 2.22, 23; 7.60-65; 10.24

Abiel was an Arbathite, a member of David's bodyguard, according to the Chronicler. He would appear to be the same person as Abialbon. 1 Chronicles 11.32

Abiezer (1) was a descendant of Manasseh, one of the people who received land on the west bank of the Jordan. Joshua 17.2

Abiezer (2) was from Anathoth, a member of David's bodyguard. 2 Samuel 23.27

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Abigail (1) was wife to Nabal, and after his death, married David. When Nabal offended David, Abigail placated the future king with gifts, while interceding for her household. Ten days after this, Nabal died, and Abigail became David's wife, bearing him his second son, Chileab. 1 Samuel 25.3-42; 27.3; 30.5; 2 Samuel 2.2; 3.3

Abigail (2) is the Chronicler's form of the name of Abigal. 1 Chronicles 2.17

Abigal was daughter of Nahash and became wife of Ithra (or Jether) mother of Amasah and sister of Zeruiah. 2 Samuel 17.25;

Abijah (1) was Samuel's second son, and a judge in Beersheba. Like his elder brother, Joel, he was known for his dishonest judgements and receipt of bribes. 1 Samuel 8.1-3

Abijah (2) was a son of Jeroboam I who died in infancy. The prophet Ahijah foretold the child's death, along with the collapse of Jeroboam's dynasty. 1 Kings 14.1-17

Abijah (3) is the Chronicler's form of the name of Abijam. 2 Chronicles 11.20-22; 13.1-14.1; Matthew 1.7

Abijah (4) was head of one of the twenty-four divisions of the priests, in the organization described by the Chronicler. These traditional divisions persisted into New Testament times - Luke states that Zechariah, father of John the Baptist, belonged to this division. 1 Chronicles 24.10; Luke 1.5

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Abijam was the king of Judah (ca. 915-913 B.C.). He was the son of Rehoboam and Maacah, who persuaded her husband to make Abijam his heir, rather than his elder brothers. Abijam defeated Jeroboam of Israel in battle. The Chronicler depicts his reign in glowing terms. In 1 Kings his brief reign is characterized more by his mother's idolatry. On Abijam's death, Asa, his son, became king. 1 Kings 14.31-15.8; 2 Chronicles 11.20-22; 13.1-14.1; Matthew 1.7

Abimael was the ninth son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Genesis 10.28

Abimelech (1) was the Philistine king of Gerar. Having been told by Abraham that Sarah was his sister, Abimelech attempted to take her as his wife. God warned Abimelech in a dream of the wrongness of his intention. He at once restored Sarah to Abraham and compensated him generously. A second version of this story gives Isaac and Rebekah as the couple. Abimelech was also involved in territorial disputes over the use of various wells. Genesis 20.1-18; 21.22-32; 26.1-31

Abimelech (2) was the illegitimate son of Gideon by his Shechemite concubine. After his father's death Abimelech killed his legitimate half-brothers (apparently seventy in number) apart from Jotham (who escaped to denounce him), and made himself ruler in Israel. Abimelech subsequently crushed an uprising led by Gaal, but was killed while besieging Thebez, when a millstone was dropped on his head by a woman of the town. Judges 8.31; 9.1-10.1

Abinadab (1) was the second son of Jesse and elder brother of David. 1 Samuel 16.8; 17.13; 1 Chronicles 2.13

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Abinadab (2) was the son of Saul and was killed with his father and brothers in the battle of Mt. Gilboa. 1 Samuel 31.2; 1 Chronicles 8.33; 9.39; 10.2

Abinadab (3) was owner of the house in which the Ark of the Covenant was temporarily kept, after its return from the Philistines. He became father of Uzzah and Ahio. 2 Samuel 6.3; 1 Chronicles 13.7

Abiram (1) was son of Eliab, brother of Dathan and conspirator, with his brother and Korah, against Moses. Abiram and his confederates were miraculously destroyed by an earth tremor. Numbers 16.1-33; 26.9,10; Deuteronomy 11.6; Psalms 106.17

Abiram (2) was the elder son of Hiel of Bethel. He was sacrificed by his father in his rebuilding of Jericho, and buried under the city's foundations. The sacrifice was seen as the fulfilment of a prophecy made by Joshua (Joshua 6.26) when his soldiers sacked the city many years earlier. 1 Kings 16.34

Abishag was a Shunnamite woman chosen for her youth and beauty to be David's nurse in his old age, though the king apparently did not have marital relations with her. After David's death, the request of Adonijah that he be allowed to make Abishag his wife became the pretext for Solomon to have him executed. 1 Kings 1.3, 4, 15; 2.17-25

Abishai was the elder brother of Joab and Asahel, one of the sons of Zeruiah. Despite his loyalty to David Abishai and Joab, by the violence of their actions, earned the king's displeasure. During Absalom's rebellion Though David rebuked him for threats towards Shimei; Abishai assisted Joab in crushing the revolt, and went on to achieve distinction as the leader of David's personal bodyguard. 1 Samuel 26.6-9; 2 Samuel 2.18, 24; 3.30, 39; 10.10-12.14; 16.9-12; 18.2, 5, 12; 19.21, 22; 20.6, 7, 10; 21.17; 23.18, 19; 1 Chronicles 2.16; 11.20, 21; 18.12, 13

Abital was a wife of David and mother of his fifth son, Shephathiah. 2 Samuel 3.4; 1 Chronicles 3.3

Abiud was an ancestor of Joseph, father of Eliakim and son of Zerubbabel. Matthew 1.13

Abner was the son of Ner, cousin of Saul and commander of his army. When he murdered Asahel, Abner provoked a blood feud with his victim's elder brother, Joab. A truce was agreed and Abner subsequently supported David in his accession to the throne of Israel. Joab treacherously murdered Abner shortly afterwards. 1 Samuel 14.50, 51; 17.55-57; 20.25; 26.5-16; 2 Samuel 2.8-30; 3.6-30; 1 Kings 2.5, 32

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Abraham (Abram) was first of the patriarchs, father of Isaac and Ishmael, grandfather of Jacob and the traditional ancestor of the Jewish people. Abraham (originally Abram, which means "exalted father") came from Ur in Mesopotamia. His father, Terah, took him (with his wife, Sarah, and his nephew, Lot) to Haran. God called Abraham to leave this new home and to find another home elsewhere in Canaan. After a brief stay in Egypt, Abraham settled near Hebron where he became involved in a local political quarrel when Lot was taken prisoner by an alliance of four eastern chieftains. Abraham launched a successful attack against this confederacy and on his victorious return encountered the mysterious Melchizedek, king of Salem, to whom he gave a tenth of all the spoil he had taken in the battle.

For many years of their marriage, he and Sarah were childless, but God assured Abraham that he would eventually become the father of a great nation. Sarah disbelieved and persuaded Abraham to beget a child by her maid, Hagar, who bore him his first son, Ishmael. When Abraham was ninety-nine years old, God appeared to him, and instituted with him a covenant of circumcision, giving him the new name of Abraham (meaning "father of a multitude") and told him that a son, to be named Isaac was shortly to be born to Sarah. When the boy was in his childhood, God ordered Abraham to take him up to a mountain in the land of Moriah and offer him up as a sacrificial victim. Abraham prepared to do so, but was prevented at the last moment from carrying out the sacrifice, and told that he would be blessed for his faithfulness in being ready to offer up his son.

When Sarah died Abraham bought the plot of ground (the field of Ephron in Machpelah) that became the burial place for many generations of his descendants. He subsequently made arrangements for the marriage of Isaac, and took another wife, Keturah, who bore him Zimran, Medan, Midian, Ishbak and Shuah. At the age of one hundred and seventy five, Abraham died and was buried in Machpelah.

The principal narrative of the part of Genesis dealing with Abraham's history is interrupted in various places by other stories involving the patriarch. These include the parallel stories of his sojourns in Egypt and in Gerar. On both occasions Abraham lied about his relations with Sarah, jeopardising the fulfilment of God's promise (as both Pharaoh and Abimelech intended to take Sarah for themselves), while protecting himself. Both times God intervened to save him from the consequences of his deception. In another story we read of Abraham's intercession on behalf of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, which were destroyed for their wickedness. Genesis 11.27-18.33; 20.1-25.12; 26.1-5; 35.27; 49.30, 31; 50.13, 24; Exodus 2.24; 3.6-16; 6.3, 8; 32.13; 33.1; Deuteronomy 6.10; 9.5; 29.13; 30.20; 34.4; Joshua 24.2, 3; 2 Kings 13.23; 1 Chronicles 1.27, 28, 34; Psalms 105.42; Isaiah 29.22; Micah 7.20; Matthew 1.1, 2, 17; 8.11; 22.32; Luke 3.34; 13.28; 16.22-31; 20.37; John 8.33, 37, 39, 40, 52, 53, 56-58; Acts 3.13, 25; 7.2-8,17, 32; Romans 4-1-23; 9.7; 11.1; 2 Corinthians 11.22; Galatians 3.6-9,14, 16, 29; 4.22; Hebrews 2.16; 6.13-15; 7.1, 2, 4-10; 11.8-10, 17-19; James 2.21-23; 1 Peter 3.6

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Absalom was David's third (the first by Maacah) and favourite son. After Tamar's rape Absalom arranged the murder of the guilty Amnon, his half-brother and David's heir. He fled Israel and was sheltered by Talmai, son of the king of Geshur, until Joab arranged a reconciliation with David. Absalom subsequently plotted against his father, with the support of Ahithophel and others and the king fled Jerusalem in panic. Badly advised by David's ally, Hushai, who had feigned loyalty to him, Absalom was defeated in battle by Joab. As he fled the battlefield Absalom was caught by his head in the branches of a tree, and killed by Joab. 2 Samuel 3.3; 13.1, 20-19.6; 20.6; 1 Kings 1.6; 2.28; 1 Chronicles 3.2; Psalms 3

Achaicus was a Corinthian Christian, the companion of Stephanas and Fortunatus, with whom he visited Paul (probably in Ephesus). 1 Corinthians 16.17

Achan was the son of Carmi, from the tribe of Judah, blamed for the initial defeat of the Israelites in the battle for Ai. After the overthrow of Jericho, devoted to destruction by divine command, Achan had disobediently taken spoil from the battlefield and concealed it in his tent. After the failure of the first assault on Ai, God revealed the crime to Joshua, and casting of lots established the identity of the culprit. When the loot was found, Achan and his immediate family were stoned to death and burned. Joshua 7.1-26; 22.20; 1 Chronicles 2.7

Achar is an alternative form of the name of Achan, used by the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 2.7

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Achbor was the son of Micaiah, an official in the court of Josiah. He was one of those whom the king sent with Hilkiah to the prophetess Huldah after the discovery, in the temple, of the book of the law. 2 Kings 22.12, 14; 2 Chronicles 34.20, 22

Achim was the father of Eliud, and son of Zadok, an ancestor of Joseph. Matthew 1.14

Achish was king of Gath, a Philistine chieftain. The book of Samuel contains two conflicting accounts of David's fleeing to Achish to avoid pursuit by Saul: according to the first, David feigned madness and was tolerated by Achish; according to the second, David was employed in the king's, army leading attacks on the Philistines' nearby enemies (except Israel) but was, at the insistence of the other Philistine leaders, dismissed from serving Achish just before the battle on Mt. Gilboa in which Saul and Jonathan fell. 1 Samuel 21.10-15; 27.1-28.2; 29.2-10; 1 Kings 2.39, 40

Achsah was the daughter of Caleb, by whom she was given in marriage to her cousin Othniel as a reward for his capturing Debir. Achsah persuaded Caleb to add further property as a marriage present. Joshua 15.16-19; Judges 1.12-15; 1 Chronicles 2.49

Achshaph (the king of) was an unnamed northern Canaanite chieftain, the ally of Jabin in an unsuccessful campaign against Joshua. Joshua 11.1-9; 12.20

Adah (1) was one of the two wives of Lamech, and mother of Jabal. Genesis 4.19, 20, 23

Adah (2) was a Hittite, Elon's daughter, first wife of Esau, and mother of Eliphaz. Genesis 36.2-4, 10-16

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Adam is the name given to first man in the creation narratives of Genesis. He was husband of Eve and father of Cain, Abel and Seth. The Hebrew noun ’adham means “man” or “mankind” and is usually translated as “the man” in the early chapters of Genesis. These relate the creation of man; his naming of the various animals; the creation of his companion, the woman or Eve, and their expulsion from the paradisal Garden of Eden after disobediently eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, at the urging of the serpent. Expelled from Eden and reduced to a life of agricultural labour, Adam became the father of the ill-fated Cain and Abel, and later of Seth. Genesis 1.26-30; 2.7, 8, 15-25; 3.6-4.1, 25; 5.1-5; 1 Chronicles 1.1; Luke 3.38; Romans 5.14; 1 Corinthians 15.45-49; 1 Timothy 2.13,14; Jude 14

Adbeel was third son of Ishmael and grandson of Abraham. Genesis 25.13; 1 Chronicles 1.29

Addi was son of Cosam and father of Melchi, an ancestor of Joseph. Luke 3.28

Adina was son of Shiza of the tribe of Reuben, the leader of a troop of thirty soldiers of David's bodyguard, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 11.42

Admatha was one of the seven privy counsellors of Ahasuerus (Xerxes I). Esther 1.14

Admin was son of Arni, father of Amminadab, and an ancestor of Joseph. Luke 3.33

Adnah was the general of Jehoshaphat of Judah, according to the Chronicler, who states that Adnah was in charge of three hundred thousand soldiers. 2 Chronicles 17.14

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Adoni-bezek was a Canaanite chieftain who mutilated his defeated enemies by cutting off their thumbs and great toes, and forcing them to eat scraps that fell from his table. After his defeat by the tribes of Judah and Simeon, he was punished in the same fashion, before being executed. Judges 1.5-7

Adonijah (1) was the son of David (his fourth) and of Haggith, born at Hebron and, at the time of Solomon's accession, his rival for the throne. Though Adonijah was apparently the eldest surviving son of David, and favoured by Joab, Solomon's less obvious claim to the throne was successful, being approved by David shortly before his death. Adonijah was at first tolerated by his half-brother but later executed when his request for Abishag as a wife gave Solomon a pretext for disposing of his rival. 2 Samuel 3.4; 1 Kings 1.5-53; 2.13-25, 28; 1 Chronicles 3.2

Adonijah (2) was, according to the Chronicler, one of the Levites whom Jehoshaphat sent out to teach the law to the Israelites. 2 Chronicles 17.8

Adoniram is an alternative form of the name of Adoram. 2 Samuel 20.24; 1 Kings 4.6; 5.14; 12.18; 2 Chronicles 10.18

Adoni-zedek was King of Jerusalem, the leader of a coalition of five Amorite cities, which attacked the Gibeonites, but was overthrown by an Israelite army led by Joshua. Driven back by a violent hailstorm, Adoni-zedek and his allies were routed. They hid in a cave at Makkedah, to which they were eventually tracked down, temporarily walled-up, and later executed, their bodies being placed on public display. Joshua 10.1-27

Adoram was overseer of forced labour in Israel in the reigns of David, Solomon and Rehoboam. Rehoboam's refusal to ease the labourers' conditions of work led to rebellion, and an angry mob stoned Adoram to death. 2 Samuel 20.24; 1 Kings 4.6; 5.14; 12.18; 2 Chronicles 10.18

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Adrammelech was the son and murderer (with his brother, Sharezer) of Sennacherib of Assyria. 2 Kings 19.37; Isaiah 37.38

Adriel was the son of Barzillai, from the tribe of Meholath. Merab, Saul's daughter, was given him in marriage, though first promised to David. By Merab, Adriel had five sons whom David later executed at the request of the Gibeonites. 1 Samuel 18.19; 2 Samuel 21.8

Æneas was a native of Lydda, a sufferer from chronic paralysis. He was bed-ridden for eight years before Simon Peter healed him in the name of Jesus. Acts 9.33-35

Agabus was a Christian prophet who foretold a famine that took place in the reign of Claudius. Later he predicted the arrest of Paul, dramatising the prophecy by binding himself hand and foot with Paul's girdle. Acts 11.28; 21.10,11

Agag is the traditional name given to the King of Amalek; 1 Samuel contains a narrative about an Amalekite ruler of this name, taken prisoner by Saul, but permitted to live, in defiance of God's command delivered by Samuel. For his act of clemency Saul was bitterly reproached by Samuel who killed Agag. Numbers 24.7; 1 Samuel 15.8-33

Agrippa is the name used in Acts for Herod Agrippa II, the son of Herod Agrippa I, and great grandson of Herod the Great. Agrippa ruled over parts of Palestine (the kingdom of Herod the Great having been divided among his heirs by Caesar's command) from A.D. 53 until the outbreak of the Jewish War in A.D. 66. Until the war broke out Agrippa tried to use his influence to postpone for as long as possible the commencement of hostilities. Acts gives an account of Agrippa's hearing the high priests' case against Paul, and the apostle's defence of his teaching, to which, apparently, Agrippa responded favourably. Acts 25.13-26.32

Agur was son of Jakeh of Massal, the author of a collection of sayings. Proverbs 30.1-33

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Ahab (1) was the son of Omri and King of Israel (ca. 869-850 B.C.). Ahab was notorious for wickedness, and an enemy of Elijah. He came to power in the thirty-eighth year of Asa's reign in Judah, and ruled for some twenty or so years. Under the influence of his idolatrous wife, Jezebel, Ahab erected an altar to Baal. After Elijah predicted a three-year famine as a punishment for this act of apostasy, Ahab attempted without success to rid himself of the prophet, but was frustrated when Elijah organised the slaughter of the priests of Baal.

Though Ahab was often at war with his neighbour, the Syrian, Ben-hadad, he allowed him to go free after capturing him in battle. For this an unnamed prophet rebuked Ahab and foretold his death. After the affair of Naboth's vineyard (the ownership of which was acquired for Ahab by his wife's trickery) Elijah predicted the king's death and the subsequent fall of his dynasty. Soon after this, Ahab was killed in battle and succeeded by his son, Ahaziah. 1 Kings 16.28-22.40; 2 Kings 1.1; 3.5; 2 Chronicles 18.1-34

Ahab (2), the son of Kolaiah, was one of two false prophets condemned by Jeremiah for opposition to the Babylonian rule in Jerusalem. Jeremiah foretold that both would be executed, and their attempts at subversion would become a by-word for folly. Jeremiah 29.21-23

Ahasuerus is the Biblical name for Xerxes I (reigned 485-464 B.C.). Ahasuerus was a Persian emperor who figures briefly in Ezra (because in his reign opponents of the rebuilding of Jerusalem tried to stop the city's reconstruction) and more prominently in Esther. Esther became his queen after her predecessor, Vashti, had been put away for disobedience. When Ahasuerus nearly fell victim to the plotting of Bigthan and Teresh, Esther's kinsman, Mordecai, saved him. An abortive attempt by Haman to destroy the Jews throughout Ahasuerus's empire eventually resulted in the execution of Haman and the promotion of Mordecai to the office of vizier, on Ahasuerus's orders. Ezra 4.6; Esther 1.10.3; Daniel 9.1

Aharah was the third son of Benjamin according to the Chronicler; perhaps the same as Gera (in Genesis 46.21) and Ahiram (in Numbers 26.38). 1 Chronicles 8.1

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Ahaz was the son of Jotham, father of Hezekiah (who succeeded him) and King of Judah (ca. 735-715 B.C.). Ahaz came to the throne at the age of about twenty and ruled for some sixteen years. He was notorious for apostasy, idolatry and sacrificing his son as a burnt offering. While under siege from Rezin of Syria and Pekah of Israel, Ahaz gained relief by paying tribute to Tiglath-pileser who defeated his enemies for him. Subsequently, Ahaz commissioned a copy of an altar he had seen in Damascus, promoted the worship of pagan gods, and took the temple treasures to pay for Assyria's help. 2 Kings 15.38-17.1; 1 Chronicles 3.13; 2 Chronicles 27.9-28.27; 29.19; Isaiah 1.1; 7.1-17; 14.28; Matthew 1.9

Ahaziah (1) was the son of Ahab and King of Israel (ca. 850-849 B.C.). His reign lasted a mere two years. Ahaziah promoted idolatry in the manner of his father. He was injured in a domestic accident, his death (foretold by Elijah) swiftly followed, and his brother, Jehoram, succeeded him. 1 Kings 22.51-2 Kings 1.18; 2 Chronicles 20.35-37

Ahaziah (2) was the son of Jehoram and Athaliah, and king of Judah (ca. 842 B.C.) Also known as Uzziah, he became father of Joash. Ahaziah was the nephew of his namesake, the King of Israel, and ruled for one year only. He formed an alliance with Jehoram of Israel against Hazael of Syria, which later faced Jehu. Jehu defeated Ahaziah and Jehoram, and both were killed. While Jehu became king in Israel Athaliah seized power temporarily in Judah, but Jehoiada, the high priest, later established Ahaziah's heir, Joash, as king. 2 Kings 8.25-9.29; 11.1; 12.18; 1 Chronicles 3.11; 2 Chronicles 22.1-10

Ahiam, son of Sharar, a Hararite, served on David's bodyguard. 2 Samuel 23.33; 1 Chronicles 11.35

Ahiezer was son of Ammishaddai, the leader of the tribe of Dan at the time of Moses' census, and subsequently during the Exodus. Numbers 1.12; 2.25; 7.66-71; 10.25

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Ahihud was son of Shelomi, representative of the tribe of Asher in the division of Canaan. Numbers 34.27

Ahijah was the son of Ahitub and great grandson of Eli. He was a priest in the reign of Saul, perhaps one of those killed on the king's orders by Doeg. 1 Samuel 14.3

Ahijah, son of Shisha, was secretary in Solomon's administration. 1 Kings 4.3

Ahijah (1) was a prophet from Shiloh. He was a contemporary of Solomon, Rehoboam and Jeroboam, and predicted the overthrow of the heir of the apostate Solomon. As the idolatry of Jeroboam became apparent, he lost Ahijah's support. When Jeroboam's wife came, disguised, to ask Ahijah about her sick child, he recognised her and foretold the death of the child and the eventual collapse of Jeroboam's dynasty. 1 Kings 11.29-39; 14.2-16; 2 Chronicles 9.29; 10.15

Ahijah (2) was a Pelonite, a warrior of David's bodyguard, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 11.36

Ahikam was the son of Shaphan, and an official in the service of Josiah and of Jehoiakim. He was one of those whom Josiah sent to the prophetess Huldah after the discovery of the book of the law. In Jehoiakim's reign Ahikam used his influence to protect Jeremiah from the king's adverse reaction to his prophecy. 2 Kings 22.12-14; Jeremiah 26.24

Ahimaaz was the son of Zadok. With Jonathan he aided David during Absalom's rebellion by passing on information about the rebel forces. Though at length discovered to be spies, both men avoided capture and witnessed the defeat of Absalom's army. Joab granted Ahimaaz the favour of being first to bear the king news of his foes' defeat. But he was fearful of telling him of the death of Absalom and left this less pleasant duty to Joab's Cushite messenger. 2 Samuel 15.27, 36; 17.17-21; 18.19-30

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Ahiman (1) was the supposed descendant of Anak discovered by Moses' spies in their reconnaissance of Canaan. The name apparently denotes a tribe, rather than the individual from whom its members were believed to be descended. Numbers 13.22

Ahiman (2) was a Levite, the head of a family of gatekeepers in the temple, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 9.17

Ahimelech (1), known as the Hittite, was an ally of David, and with him in his stronghold on the hill of Hachilah when David planned his raid on the camp of Saul. 1 Samuel 26.6

Ahimelech (2) was the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar, a priest at Nob. He was killed on the orders of Saul for assisting David (giving him food and the sword of Goliath) whom the king (unknown to Ahimelech) was pursuing at the time. The execution was carried out by the Edomite, Doeg, as Saul's soldiers refused to commit such an outrage. 1 Samuel 21.1-9; 22.9-23

Ahimelech (3) was the son, according to 2 Samuel 8.17, of Abiathar, a priest in the reign of David. As Ahimelech was the name of Abiathar's murdered father (see above) it has been suggested that a copyist has mistakenly transposed the names. It is, of course, possible that Ahimelech was the son of Abiathar, named after his grandfather. 2 Samuel 8.17; 1 Chronicles 18.16; 24.31

Ahinadab was the son of Iddo, a steward in the service of Solomon and administrator of the district of Mahanaim. 1 Kings 4.14

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Ahinoam was the daughter of Ahimaaz and wife of Saul. 1 Samuel 14.50

Ahinoam was David's third wife, mother of his first son, Amnon. Ahinoam came from Jezreel. 1 Samuel 25.43; 27.3; 30.5; 2 Samuel 2.2; 3.2; 1 Chronicles 3.1

Ahio was Abinadab's son and Uzzah's brother. He was one of those who took part in the initial ill-fated attempt to return the Ark to Jerusalem. 2 Samuel 6.3; 1 Chronicles 13.7

Ahira was Enan's son, the representative of the tribe of Naphtali in Moses' census of Israel. Numbers 1.15; 2.29; 7.78-83; 10.27

Ahiram was the third son of Benjamin, according to Numbers; perhaps the same as Gera (in Genesis 46.21) and Aharah (in 1 Chronicles 8.1). Numbers 26.38

Ahishar was a palace administrator in the court of Solomon. 1 Kings 4.6

Ahithophel was a counsellor of David and of Absalom, from Gilo. In planning his revolt against David, Absalom sought the advice of Ahithophel, who transferred his loyalty to the younger man. Absalom followed his suggestion of taking over his father's concubines publicly, but rejected his military strategy (launching a swift attack on David) for that of Hushai, who was secretly loyal to David. Seeing his advice ignored (and perhaps foreseeing Absalom's defeat) Ahithophel hanged himself. Comparison of different passages in 2 Samuel (11.3; 23.34) suggests that Ahithophel might have been Bathsheba's grandfather, which would explain his disloyalty to David. 2 Samuel 15.12, 31, 34; 16.15, 20-17.23; 1 Chronicles 27.33, 34

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Ahuzzath was a counsellor of the Philistine king, Abimelech. Genesis 26.26

Ai (the king of) was a Canaanite chieftain whom Joshua defeated. Leading his forces into an Israelite trap, Joshua's men utterly defeated the king. They sacked Ai and executed the king - a prominent cairn marks the site of his burial. Joshua 8.1-29; 12.9

Akkub (1) was gatekeeper of the tent of meeting in David's court, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 9.17

Akkub (2) was a Levite and assistant of Ezra. He was one of those who helped the people of Jerusalem understand the book of the law as publicly read to them by Ezra. This help apparently consisted of giving an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew text as read aloud. Nehemiah 8.7, 8

Alexander (1) of Cyrene was the son of Simon and brother of Rufus. Mark 15.21

Alexander (2) was a member of the high-priestly family, a relative and contemporary of Annas and Caiaphas. Acts 4.6

Alexander (3) was put forward as a spokesman of the Jews during the silversmiths' riot at Ephesus but refused a hearing because of his race. Acts 19.33, 34

Alexander (4) was a coppersmith referred to in Paul's correspondence with Timothy (perhaps the same person as the spokesman of the silversmiths in Acts 19.33). He was apparently expelled from the church on Paul's orders. 1 Timothy 1.20; 2 Timothy 4.14-15

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Alian is the name used by the Chronicler for Alvan. 1 Chronicles 1.4

Almodad was the son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem and Eber. Genesis 10.26

Alphaeus (1) was father of the disciple, James the Less. Matthew 10.3; Mark 3.18; Luke 6.15

Alphaeus (2) was the father of Matthew (Levi). Mark 2.14

Alvan was the eldest of the sons of Shobal. Genesis 36.23; 1 Chronicles 1.40

Amalek was a descendant of Esau, the son of Eliphaz and his concubine Timna. He was the supposed ancestor of the people named after him. Genesis 36.12,16; 1 Chronicles 1.36

Amariah (1) was the chief priest in Jerusalem in the reign of Jehoshaphat. The king appointed him to settle disputed points of religious law, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 19.11

Amariah (2) was a Levite. According to the Chronicler, he was the assistant of Kore in the distribution of portions of the free-will offering sponsored by Hezekiah. 2 Chronicles 31.15

Amariah (3) was the father of Gedaliah, and great-grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah. Zephaniah 1.1

Amasa (1) was an Ishmaelite, the son of Ithra, and commander of David's army. When Absalom revolted, he made Amasa commander, a post he retained under David (following the rebels' defeat) until the revolt of Sheba. Amasa's delay in mustering the forces loyal to the king led Joab to murder him, and then quell the rebellion. 2 Samuel 17.25; 19.13; 20-4-13; 1 Kings 2.5, 32; 1 Chronicles 2.17

Amasa (2) was the son of Hadlai, an Ephraimite chieftain who, with others, prevented Pekah from enslaving the soldiers of Judah, captured in his victory over Ahaz. The Ephraimite leaders freed the prisoners and provided food and clothing for them. 2 Chronicles 28.12-15

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Amasai (1) was the commander of David's bodyguard, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 12.18

Amasai (2) was a priest and musician of David's court, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 15.24

Amasiah was the son of Zichri, the commander of two hundred thousand troops of the army of Jehoshaphat, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 17.16

Amaziah (1) was the son of Joash and Jehoaddin, the King of Judah (ca. 800-783 B.C.). The twenty-five year old Amaziah came to the throne on his father's murder, and ruled for twenty-nine years. He captured Sela from Edom but was defeated in the war into which he had provoked Jehoash of Israel, whom he nonetheless outlived by fifteen years. He was murdered by plotters, and succeeded by his son Azariah. 2 Kings 12.21; 14.1-23; 15.3; 1 Chronicles 3.12; 2 Chronicles 25.1-28

Amaziah (2) was a priest at Bethel in the reign of Jeroboam II. He was an opponent of the prophet Amos whose words he reported to the king, and whom he attempted to expel from the sanctuary. Amos foretold Amaziah's death in exile. Amos 7.10-17

Amittai was the father of the prophet Jonah. Jonah 1.1

Ammiel was the son of Gemalli, from the tribe of Dan. He was one of the twelve scouts sent out by Moses to reconnoitre Canaan. Numbers 13.12

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Amminadab was a descendant of Judah, the father of Nahshon and Elisheba (Aaron's wife) and an ancestor of Joseph. Exodus 6.23; Numbers 1.7; 2.3; 7.12, 17; 10.14; Ruth 4.19, 20; 1 Chronicles 2.10; Matthew 1.4; Luke 3.33

Amnon was the son of David (his eldest) and Ahinoam. Amnon became infatuated with his half-sister, Tamar, and, aided by his cousin, Jonadab, raped her. Two years later, Absalom (Tamar's full brother) had Amnon murdered during the sheep-shearing festivities at Baal-hazor. 2 Samuel 3.2; 13.1-29, 33, 39; 1 Chronicles 3.1

Amon (1) was governor of Samaria in Ahab's reign. 1 Kings 22.26

Amon (2) was the son of Manasseh and Meshullemeth, the king of Judah (ca. 642-640 B.C.). Amon succeeded his father at the age of twenty-two but reigned for two years only. His tolerance of the same idolatry that had marked his father's reign led his servants to assassinate him. His eight-year old son, Josiah, succeeded Amon. 2 Kings 21.18-26; 1 Chronicles 3.14; 2 Chronicles 33.21-25; Matthew 1.10

Amos (1) was a prophet, active (ca. 780-740 B.C.) during the reigns of Azariah in Judah and Jeroboam II in Israel. Amos criticized Israel's reliance upon military power, and tolerance of social injustice and immorality. For this, the priest Amaziah opposed him, and attempted to expel him from the sanctuary at Bethel. Amos 1.1-9.15

Amos (2) was the son of Nahum and father of Mattathias, an ancestor of Joseph in Luke's genealogy. Luke 3.25

Amoz was the father of the prophet Isaiah. Isaiah 1.1; 2.1; 20.2; 37.2,21; 38.1

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Ampliatus was a Christian whom Paul greeted at the end of his letter to the Roman church. Romans 16.8

Amram was a grandson of Levi, the eldest son of Kohath, husband of Jochebed, and father of Aaron and Moses. Exodus 6.20; Numbers 3.19; 26.58, 59; 1 Chronicles 6.2, 3, 18; 23.12, 13

Amraphel was the king of Shinar, one of four eastern Canaanite chieftains defeated by Abraham. These four quelled an uprising of five subject chieftains. But among the captives taken from Sodom were Lot and his family. This provoked a surprise attack by Abraham, who defeated the four kings and freed their prisoners. Genesis 14.1-15,17

Anah was the son of Zibeon and father of Dishon and Oholibamah (Esau's second wife). Anah's name recurs in several places in the Edomite genealogies in Genesis. Anah is also credited with the discovery of (unidentified) springs in the wilderness. Genesis 36.2,14, 20, 24, 25; 1 Chronicles 1.38, 41

Anaiah was an assistant of Ezra, one of those in attendance on the occasion of his public reading of the book of the law. Nehemiah 8.4

Anamim was the second son of Egypt. Genesis 10.13

Ananias (1) was the husband of Sapphira, with whom he sold some property. They gave part of the proceeds to the common purse of the Jerusalem Christians, but pretended that the gift was of the full price. Peter saw through the deception and condemned Ananias, who fell dead, as did his wife when she learned of his fate. Acts 5.1-11

Ananias (2) was a Christian of Damascus, sent by God to heal Saul of his temporary blindness, which coincided, with his conversion on the road to Damascus. Ananias baptised Saul and restored his sight. Acts 9.10-17; 22.12-16

Ananias (3) was the high priest in Jerusalem during the reigns of Claudius and of Nero, assassinated in the rebellion of A.D. 66. Ananias presided over the trial of Paul, and ordered his interrogators to strike him. Acts 23.2-5; 24.1

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Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter, a Galilean fisherman and one of the first apostles. According to Matthew and Mark, Andrew was called from his original work by Jesus himself, but John states that he became a disciple as a result of hearing the teaching of John the Baptist, and subsequently brought Peter to Jesus. According to John, Andrew drew Jesus' attention to the boy whose loaves and fishes were to feed the five thousand, and brought a group of Greek worshippers to speak with Jesus during the Passover festivities. According to Mark, Andrew was present when Jesus foretold the end of the age. Last mentioned in the list of disciples at the beginning of Acts, Andrew does not re-appear in the narrative, nor is mentioned in any of the epistles. Matthew 4.18-20; 10.2; Mark 1.16-18, 29; 3.18; 13.3; Luke 6.14; John 1.37-41, 44; 6.8, 9; 12.22; Acts 1.13

Andronicus was a Christian greeted by Paul in the closing section of his letter to the Roman church. Romans 16.7

Aner was the brother of Mamre and Eshcol, an ally of Abraham. Genesis 14.13

Anna was the daughter of Phanuel, a prophetess from the tribe of Asher. When Jesus was brought as a child to the temple for purification, the eighty-four year-old, widowed Anna, who lived in the temple precincts, hailed him as the coming Messiah. Luke 2.36-38

Annas was a high priest, father-in-law of Caiaphas. After the Romans deposed him in A.D. 15, Annas was succeeded in office by his son-in-law and his four sons. John 18.13-24; Acts 4.6;

Antipas was apparently a Christian martyr of Pergamum, possibly killed in the persecution of the church sponsored by the emperor Domitian. Revelation 2.13

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Aphek (the king of) was a Canaanite chieftain defeated by Joshua. Joshua 12.18

Apelles was a Christian greeted by Paul in the closing section of his letter to the church at Rome. Romans 16.10

Apollos was an Alexandrian, an early Christian evangelist. Apollos began his work in Ephesus but was more fully instructed in the faith by Priscilla and Aquila, after which he went on to teach in Corinth. Apollos is on several occasions referred to in Paul's epistles, and the force of his preaching is borne out by the partisan spirit of his disciples. Acts 18.24-19.1; 1 Corinthians 1.12; 3.4-6, 22; 4.6; 16.12; Titus 3.13

Apphia was a Colossian Christian. Paul greets her in his letter to Philemon, of whom she was evidently a friend or relative. Philemon 2

Aquila was a tent-maker from Pontus, the husband of Priscilla. Expelled with his wife (both were Jews) from Italy by edict of Claudius, Aquila came to Corinth, where he became the business partner of Paul. Aquila later accompanied Paul to Syria, being still with him when he wrote to the Corinthians from Ephesus. Aquila is named in various epistles. Acts 18.2, 3, 18, 26; Romans 16.3-5; 1 Corinthians 16.19; 2 Timothy 4.19

Arad (1; the king of) was a Canaanite chieftain defeated during the Exodus by the Israelites at the battle of Hormah. Numbers 21.1-3; 33.40

Arad (2; the king of) was a Canaanite chieftain defeated by Joshua in his conquest of Canaan. Joshua 12.14

Aram was the fifth son of Shem, the father of Uz, Hul, Gether and Mash. Genesis 10.22, 23; 1 Chronicles 1.17

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Araunah was a Jebusite, the owner of a house purchased by David, which later became the site for Solomon's temple. Solomon built on this site because it was here that David saw the angel that was destroying the Israelites as a punishment for the census undertaken by the king. 2 Samuel 24.16-25

Arba was the father of Anak, a legendary hero of the Anakim. Arba gave his name to Kiriath-arba ("City of Arba") which was later renamed Hebron. Joshua 14.15; 21.11

Archelaus was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, the ethnarch of Judaea (ca. 4 B.C. - A.D. 6). Archelaus succeeded to half of his father's domains until deposed by Augustus and banished to Vienne in Gaul, his dominions being transferred to the jurisdiction of the procurator, Coponius. Matthew 2.22

Archippus was a Colossian Christian, a friend of Philemon. In his epistle to Colossae, Paul reminds Archippus to fulfil his divine calling to the ministry. Colossians 4.17; Philemon 2

Ard was the tenth and youngest of Benjamin's sons, according to Genesis. In Numbers he appears as Benjamin's grandson, the son of Bela. Genesis 46.21; Numbers 26.40

Areli was the seventh son of Gad. Genesis 46.16; Numbers 26.17

Aretas (IV) was king of Nabataea, the ruler of Damascus at the time of Paul's escape over the city walls. 2 Corinthians 11.32

Aridai was one of the ten sons of Haman killed by the Jews. Esther 9.9

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Aridatha was one of the ten sons of Haman killed by the Jews. Esther 9.9

Ariel was a Jewish elder who assisted Ezra in the return to, and rebuilding of, Jerusalem. Ezra 8.16

Arioch (1) was the king of Ellasar, one of four eastern Canaanite chieftains defeated by Abraham. These four quelled an uprising of five subject chieftains. But among the captives taken from Sodom were Lot and his family. This provoked a surprise attack by Abraham who defeated the four kings and freed their prisoners. Genesis 14.1-15, 17

Arioch (2) was the captain of the guard in Nebuchadnezzar's court, according to Daniel. Daniel 2.14, 15, 24, 25

Arisai was one of the ten sons of Haman, killed by the Jews of Susa. Esther 9.9

Aristarchus was a Macedonian, a companion of Paul in the later stages of his missionary activity, during the Ephesian silversmiths' riot, on Paul's last visit to Greece and on his return to Palestine. Aristarchus accompanied Paul to Rome and may have remained with him during the time of his imprisonment there. Acts 19.29; 20.4; 27.2; Colossians 4.10; Philemon 24

Aristobulus was a Christian greeted in the personal messages with which Paul's letter to Rome closes. Romans 16.10

Armoni was the son of Saul and Rizpah. With his brother, Mephibosheth, and five of his nephews, he was executed as reparation to the Gibeonites, whom Saul had apparently persecuted. 2 Samuel 21.8

Arod was the sixth son of Gad; the spelling of his name varies slightly in Genesis and Numbers. Genesis 46.16; Numbers 26.17

Arodi is the alternative form of the name of Arod. Genesis 46.16; Numbers 26.17

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Arni was the son of Hezron, the father of Admin, an ancestor of Joseph, in Luke's genealogy. Luke 3.33

Arpachshad was the son of Shem and father of Shelah (or, according to Luke, of Cainan), an ancestor of Abraham and of Joseph. Genesis 10.22, 24; 11.10-13; 1 Chronicles 1.17, 18, 24; Luke 3.36

Arphaxad is the alternative form of the name of Arpachshad. Genesis 10.22, 24; 11.10-13; 1 Chronicles 1.17, 18, 24; Luke 3.36

Artaxerxes I was a Persian ruler (ca. 464-423 B.C.), the successor to Xerxes I. He initially opposed to the reconstruction of Jerusalem, but later authorised Nehemiah's rebuilding of the temple there. According to Ezra 6.14, though this may be an incorrect scribal emendation of the text, Artaxerxes also authorised the work carried out by Haggai and Zechariah. Ezra 4.7-23; 6.14; Nehemiah 2.1-8; 5.14

Artaxerxes II was a Persian ruler (ca. 404-358 B.C.) who authorised Ezra's restoration of religious ritual in Jerusalem. Ezra 7.1, 7, 11-28

Artemas was a companion of Paul who intended to send him to Titus. Titus 3.12

Asa was the son of Abijam and Maacah, a king of Judah (ca. 913-873 B.C.). Asa was responsible for widespread religious reforms, including the removal of the idolatrous Maacah from her office of queen mother. He oversaw the construction of a large water cistern in Jerusalem. In his wars with Baashah of Israel, Asa used some of the treasure of the temple to bribe Ben-hadad of Syria into an alliance. In his old age Asa reputedly suffered from a disease of the feet. On his death, Jehoshaphat succeeded him. 1 Kings 15.8-24; 16.29; 1 Chronicles 3.10; 2 Chronicles 14.1-16.14; 17.2; 20.32; Jeremiah 41.9; Matthew 1.7, 8

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Asahel (1) was the third son of Zeruiah, a younger brother of Abishai and Joab, and soldier of David's bodyguard. Asahel was murdered by Abner (whom Joab subsequently killed). 2 Samuel 2.18-32; 3.27-30; 23.24; 1 Chronicles 2.16; 11.26

Asahel (2) was a Levite, one of those appointed to teach the law to the populace of Judah, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 17.8

Asahel (3) was a servant of Hezekiah, an overseer who assisted Conaniah in the collection of tithes for the king's store-chambers. 2 Chronicles 31.13

Asaiah was a servant of Josiah, one of those sent by him to ask the counsel of the prophetess, Huldah. 2 Kings 22.12, 14; 2 Chronicles 34.20

Asaph was the head of one of the three orders of Levitical musicians, which David supposedly established. Asahel, who is named several times in the lists of musicians in Chronicles, is also given as the composer of Psalms 50 and 78 to 83, inclusive. 1 Chronicles 6.39; 15.17; 16.5, 7, 37; 25.1; Psalms 50; 78-83

Asenath was the daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, the wife of Joseph, and mother of Manasseh and Ephraim. Genesis 41.45, 50; 46.20

Ashbel was a son of Benjamin, the third (according to Genesis) or second (according to Numbers and Chronicles). The dying out of Becher's family line could have caused this lack of agreement. Genesis 46.21; Numbers 26.38; 1 Chronicles 8.1

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Asher (whose name means “happy”) was the eighth son of Jacob, his second by Leah's maid, Zilpah. He became father of Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and their sister, Serah. The tribe descended from Asher settled in the fertile strip of territory between Carmel and Phoenicia. Genesis 30.13; 35.26; 46.17; 49.20; Exodus 1.4; Numbers 26.44-47; 1 Chronicles 2.2; 7.30

Ashpenaz was a chief eunuch in the court of Nebuchadnezzar, appointed to select youths to serve in the royal household. Daniel 1.3, 9,10

Aspatha was one of the ten sons of Haman. He was killed by the Jews of Susa, in retribution for his father's intended genocide of the Jews in Persia. Esther 9.7

Asriel was the son of Gilead, the ancestor of the Asrielite clan. Numbers 26.31; Joshua 17.2

Asshur was the second son of Shem, a grandson of Noah. Genesis 10.22; 1 Chronicles 1.17

Assir was the eldest son of Korah, a descendant of Levi. Exodus 6.24

Asyncritus is a Christian whom Paul greets in the closing section of his letter to the church at Rome. Romans 16.14

Athaliah was the granddaughter of Omri, the wife of Jehoram, mother of Ahaziah, and regent of Judah (ca. 842-837 B.C.). When Ahaziah died, she seized power, putting to death all his children, save Joash, whom the priest Jehoiada rescued. Jehoiada later had Athaliah killed, and instituted Joash as king. 2 Kings 8.26; 11.1-20; 2 Chronicles 22.2, 10-12; 23.12-15

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Augustus (original name Octavian) was the Roman emperor (27 B.C.-A.D. 14) at the time of Christ's birth. He is one of various rulers referred to as “Caesar” in the New Testament. Luke 2.1

Azariah (1) was the son of Zadok, a priest in the reign of Solomon. 1 Kings 4.2

Azariah (2) was the son of Nathan, an official in Solomon's administration. 1 Kings 4.5

Azariah (3), also known as Uzziah, was the son of Amaziah and Jecoliah, and father of Jotham. He became king of Judah (ca. 783-742 B.C.), following Amaziah's murder (committed when Azariah was sixteen). In the latter part of his reign Azariah suffered from leprosy (viewed as a punishment for his tolerance of idolatry) and Jotham became regent. 2 Kings 14.21, 22; 15.1-34; 1 Chronicles 3.12; 2 Chronicles 26.1-23; Isaiah 1.1; 6.1; Hosea 1.1; Zechariah 14.5; Matthew 1.8,9

Azariah (4) was the son of Oded, a prophet sent to Asa to instruct him to carry out various religious reforms, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 15.1-8

Azariah (5) was the son of Jehoshaphat, a brother of Jehoram, by whom (on Jehoram's accession to the throne) Azariah was killed with all his other brothers. 2 Chronicles 21.2

Azariah (6) was the son of Jeroham, an ally of Jehoiada in his conspiracy against Athaliah, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 23.1

Azariah (7) was the son of Obed, an ally of Jehoiada in his conspiracy against Athaliah, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 23.1

Azariah (8) was the priest who opposed Azariah (Uzziah), king of Judah, in his attempt to burn incense in the temple, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 26.17-20

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Azariah (9) was the son of Johanan, an Ephraimite chieftain, one of those who prevented the Israelites from enslaving the defeated soldiers of Ahaz of Judah, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 28.12

Azariah (10) was the son of Jehallelel, a Levite in the service of Hezekiah, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 29.12

Azariah (11) was a descendant of Zadok, a chief priest in the reign of Hezekiah, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 31.10

Azariah (12) was the chief officer of Hezekiah, in charge of the overseers of the king's store-chambers, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 31.13

Azariah (13) was the son of Maaseiah, an assistant of Nehemiah in his rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem. Nehemiah 3.23

Azariah (14) was the assistant of Ezra, a Levite who helped explain to the people of Jerusalem the teaching contained in the book of the law. Nehemiah 8.7

Azariah (15) was the son of Hoshaiah, an ally of Johanan, and one of those who sought counsel from Jeremiah after the assassination of the governor, Gedaliah. Jeremiah 42.1-6; 43.2, 3

Azariah (16) was the companion of Daniel, Hananiah and Mishael. An official of Nebuchadnezzar, whom he served, renamed him Abednego. Daniel 1.6-20; 2.17,18, 49; 3.12-30

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Azaziah (1) was a Levitical musician (a lyre player) in David's court, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 15.21

Azaziah (2) was a servant of Hezekiah, an assistant of Conaniah and Shimei in collecting tithes, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 31.13

Azmaveth (1) was a warrior of David's bodyguard. 2 Samuel 23.31; 1 Chronicles 11.33

Azmaveth (2) was the son of Adiel, a treasurer in David's administration, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 27.25

Azor was Eliakim's son, Zadok's father, and an ancestor of Joseph in Matthew's genealogy. Matthew 1.13, 14

Azrikam was commander of the palace in the court of Ahaz. Zichri, one of Pekah's warriors, killed him, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 28.7

Azubah was Shilhi's daughter, wife of Asa and mother of Jehoshaphat. 1 Kings 22.42; 2 Chronicles 20.31

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